What Is Piston ?
piston is a cylindrical engine component that slides back and forth in the cylinder bore by forces produced during the combustion process. The piston acts as a movable end of the combustion chamber. The stationary end of the combustion chamber is the cylinder head. Pistons are commonly made of a cast aluminum alloy for excellent and lightweight thermal conductivity. Thermal conductivity is the ability of a material to conduct and transfer heat. Aluminum expands when heated, and proper clearance must be provided to maintain free piston movement in the cylinder bore. Insufficient clearance can cause the piston to seize in the cylinder. Excessive clearance can cause a loss of compression and an increase in piston noise.
The piston moves up and down continuously in the cylinder to carry out the steps of suction, compression, combustion and disposal. Therefore the piston must be resistant to high pressure, high temperature and high rotation. Pistons are made of aluminum alloy, cast iron and ceramics. In general, aluminum pistons are the most widely used, besides being lighter, the heat radiation is also more efficient than other materials.
Piston features include the piston head, piston pin bore, piston pin, skirt, ring grooves, ring lands, and piston rings.
The piston head is the top surface (closest to the cylinder head) of the piston which is subjected to tremendous forces and heat during normal engine operation.
Piston pin bore & Piston Pin
A piston pin bore is a through hole in the side of the piston perpendicular to piston travel that receives the piston pin. A piston pin is a hollow shaft that connects the small end of the connecting rod to the piston.
The skirt of a piston is the portion of the piston closest to the crankshaft that helps align the piston as it moves in the cylinder bore. Some skirts have profiles cut into them to reduce piston mass and to provide clearance for the rotating crankshaft counterweights.
Ring Groove & Ring Lands
A ring groove is a recessed area located around the perimeter of the piston that is used to retain a piston ring. Ring lands are the two parallel surfaces of the ring groove which function as the sealing surface for the piston ring. A piston ring is an expandable split ring used to provide a seal between the piston an the cylinder wall. Piston rings are commonly made from cast iron. Cast iron retains the integrity of its original shape under heat, load, and other dynamic forces. Piston rings seal the combustion chamber, conduct heat from the piston to the cylinder wall, and return oil to the crankcase. Piston ring size and configuration vary depending on engine design and cylinder material.
Piston rings commonly used on small engines include the compression ring, wiper ring, and oil ring. A compression ring is the piston ring located in the ring groove closest to the piston head. The compression ring seals the combustion chamber from any leakage during the combustion process. When the air-fuel mixture is ignited, pressure from combustion gases is applied to the piston head, forcing the piston toward the crankshaft. The pressurized gases travel through the gap between the cylinder wall and the piston and into the piston ring groove. Combustion gas pressure forces the piston ring against the cylinder wall to form a seal. Pressure applied to the piston ring is approximately proportional to the combustion gas pressure.
A wiper ring is the piston ring with a tapered face located in the ring groove between the compression ring and the oil ring. The wiper ring is used to further seal the combustion chamber and to wipe the cylinder wall clean of excess oil. Combustion gases that pass by the compression ring are stopped by the wiper ring.
The wiper ring, sometimes called the scraper ring, Napier ring, or back-up compression ring, is the next ring away from the cylinder head on the piston. The wiper ring provides a consistent thickness of oil film to lubricate the running surface of the compression ring. Most wiper rings in Briggs & Stratton engines have a taper angle face. The tapered angle is positioned toward the oil reservoir and provides a wiping action as the piston moves toward the crankshaft.
An oil ring is the piston ring located in the ring groove closest to the crankcase. The oil ring is used to wipe excess oil from the cylinder wall during piston movement. Excess oil is returned through ring openings to the oil reservoir in the engine block. Two-stroke cycle engines do not require oil rings because lubrication is supplied by mixing oil in the gasoline, and an oil reservoir is not required.